Adobe Illustrator – Wikipedia.A. Installation and Troubleshooting – Photoshop Elements The Missing Manual [Book]
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. It was originally created in by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole.
The software’s name is often colloquially used as a verb e. In addition to raster graphics, Photoshop has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics especially through clipping path for the latter , as well as 3D graphics and video. Its feature set can be expanded by plug-ins ; programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that run inside it and offer new or enhanced features. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers.
However, in October following the introduction of Creative Suite branding , each new version of Photoshop was designated with ” CS ” plus a number; e. With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June and in turn, the change of the ” CS ” suffix to ” CC ” , Photoshop’s licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service subscription model.
As of November , Adobe has also released a full version of Photoshop for the iPad , and while initially limited, Adobe plans to bring more features to Photoshop for iPad. Photoshop was developed in by two brothers Thomas and John Knoll , who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in Thomas Knoll, a Ph. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken.
During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September Photoshop 1. The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1. The list price of Photoshop 1. Photoshop was initially only available on Macintosh.
The Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft ‘s global reach expanded within the next few years. Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD , which stands for ” P hoto s hop D ocument”. This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes.
These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web. Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension. PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing.
Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications.
Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications. There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation.
The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop.
Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching. These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool.
The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.
The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image.
Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines. These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc.
In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants. The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations.
The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section. This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document.
By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped. The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased.
The slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied. The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected.
Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the marquee tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping. The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical.
Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line. The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option. Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”. To set a specific size or ratio, the tool options bar provides these settings.
Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height. Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop.
The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point.
The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection has been made. The polygonal lasso tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines. Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool.
Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point.
It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor moves over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed. The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool.
The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over. By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image.
The “marching ants” allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image. One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection.
The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values.
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Adobe Illustrator is a vector graphics editor and design program developed and marketed by Adobe Inc. Originally designed for the Apple Macintosh , development of Adobe Illustrator began in Along with Creative Cloud Adobe’s shift to monthly or annual subscription service delivered over the Internet , Illustrator CC was released.
The latest version, Illustrator , was released on October 26, , and is the 25th generation in the product line. Adobe Illustrator was reviewed as the best vector graphics editing program in by PC Magazine.
Development of Adobe Illustrator for the Apple Macintosh began in  shipping in January as a commercialization of Adobe’s in-house font development software and PostScript file format. Adobe Illustrator is the companion product of Adobe Photoshop. Photoshop is primarily geared toward digital photo manipulation and photorealistic styles of computer illustration , while Illustrator provides results in the typesetting and logo graphic areas of design.
Early magazine advertisements featured in graphic design trade magazines such as Communication Arts referred to the product as “the Adobe Illustrator”. Illustrator 88, the product name for version 1. Byte in listed Illustrator 88 as among the “Distinction” winners of the Byte Awards, stating that with it Adobe had “pulled ahead” of previously industry-dominant competitor Aldus FreeHand.
Early versions of the software did not support working in preview mode and users needed to have two windows open on their desktop in order to have a live preview of their work. One window would show the work in progress and the other window would show a preview of the work in progress. Although during its first decade Adobe developed Illustrator primarily for Macintosh, it sporadically supported other platforms.
The first version of Illustrator for Windows, version 2. The next Windows version, version 4. Note that there were no versions 2.
And there was no version 6 for Windows. Version 4 was, however, the first version of Illustrator to support editing in preview mode, which did not appear in a Macintosh version until 5. Version 6 was the last truly Macintosh version of Illustrator.
The interface changed radically with the following version to bring consistency between Mac and Windows computer platforms. The changes remained until CS6 when some small steps were taken to restore the app to a slightly more Mac-like interface. With the introduction of Illustrator 7 in , Adobe made critical changes in the user interface with regard to path editing and also to converge on the same user interface as Adobe Photoshop , and many users opted not to upgrade.
Like Photoshop, Illustrator also began supporting plug-ins, greatly and quickly extending its abilities. With true user interface parity between Macintosh and Windows versions starting with 7. Adobe bought Aldus in for Page Maker. As a result, Macromedia acquired Free Hand in from its original developer, Altsys , and continued its development through Illustrator Version 9 included a tracing feature, similar to that within Adobe’s discontinued product Streamline.
Illustrator CS aka version 11 , released by Adobe for Mac and Windows in October , was the first version to include 3-dimensional capabilities allowing users to extrude or revolve shapes to create simple 3D objects. It was the last version for the Mac which did not run natively on Intel processors.
Live Trace allows for the conversion of bitmap imagery into vector art and improved upon the previous tracing abilities. Live Paint allows users more flexibility in applying color to objects, specifically those that overlap. Instead, Adobe would provide tools and support to ease the transition to Illustrator.
Illustrator CS3 included interface updates to the Control Bar, the ability to align individual points, multiple Crop Areas, the Color Guide panel and the Live Color feature among others.
CS3 was released on March 27, CS4 was released in October It features a variety of improvements to old tools along with the introduction of a few brand-new tools acquired from FreeHand.
The ability to create multiple artboards is one of CS4’s main additions from Freehand. The artboards allow you to create multiple versions of a piece of work within a single document. Other tools include the Blob Brush, which allows multiple overlapping vector brush strokes to easily merge or join, and a revamped gradient tool allowing for more in-depth color manipulation as well as transparency in gradients.
CS5 was released in April Along with a number of enhancements to existing functionality, Illustrator CS5’s new features include a Perspective Grid tool taken from FreeHand, a Bristle Brush for more natural and painterly looking strokes and a comprehensive update to strokes, referred to by Adobe as “Beautiful Strokes”. The app had many of the features of Adobe Illustrator, yet it was a free download. This allowed professionals to sketch and ideate “on the go” and allowed anyone to access world-class vector drawing capabilities.
As a result, Facebook and social media posts appeared from all over the world with vector drawings from Adobe Ideas from pros and novices alike. Version CS6 was the 16th generation of Adobe Illustrator. Adobe added many more features and several bug fixes such as a new user interface, layer panels, RGB codes, and color ramp to increase performance.
CS6 was released on April 23, This version the 17th was the first to be only sold in a subscription-based service model, in line with the other software in the formerly called Creative Suite. As part of Creative Cloud, this version brought improvements in that subject such as color, font and program settings syncing, saving documents to the cloud, and integration with Behance a creative collaborative network , as well as other features such as a new touch-compatible type tool, images in brushes, CSS extraction, and files packaging.
Starting with version 1. John Warnock desired a Renaissance image to evoke his vision of PostScript as a new Renaissance in publishing, and Adobe employee Luanne Seymour Cohen, who was responsible for the early marketing material, found Venus’ flowing tresses a perfect vehicle for demonstrating Illustrator’s strength in tracing smooth curves over bitmap source images. Over the years the rendition of this image on Illustrator’s splash screen and packaging became more stylized to reflect features added in each version.
The image of Venus was replaced albeit still accessible via easter egg in Illustrator CS The CS4 icon is almost identical, except for a slight alteration to the font and the color which is dark gray. The CS5 icon is also virtually the same, except that this time the logo is like a box, along with all the other CS5 product logos, with the “Ai” bright yellow.
CS6 changed it a bit to a brown square with a yellow border and yellow lettering, and in CC the colors were upgraded to a sharper tone and thinner borders. Compatibility with Inkscape :  Inkscape’s native format is SVG Scalable Vector Graphics , which is supported by Adobe Illustrator, but the two implementations are not fully compatible. A sidebar that appears at the left of the screen with a variety of tools to select, create, and manipulate objects or artworks in Illustrator.
These tools can be selected as following: drawing, typing, painting, reshaping, slicing and cutting, symbolism, moving and zooming, and graph. A small triangle has the option to view or expand some hidden tools by holding down the mouse button on the triangle. Some examples of basic tools in Illustrator are selection tools, paintbrush tools, pen tools, pencil tools e.
Selection tools are used to the layout, adjust, and organize the artwork by selecting, positioning, and stacking objects accurately. Moreover, selection tools can group, lock or hide, and measure objects. There are different types of brushes: calligraphic, scatter, art, pattern, and bristle.
Pencil tools allow the user to draw and edit freehand lines. Illustrator Draw is a free-form vector drawing app for Android and iOS users. Drawings made with the Illustrator Draw app can be exported to the desktop programs of Adobe Illustrator.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Vector graphics editor from Adobe Inc. Adobe Inc. October 26, Retrieved October 29, Retrieved December 4, September 20, Archived from the original on October 20, January The Nelson Group, Inc. Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved April 26, April 15, Retrieved February 11, October 18, Archived from the original PDF on May 24, Retrieved February 8, November 7, Adobe Systems.
December 5, Archived from the original on December 19, Retrieved December 29, John Nack on Adobe. Adobe Blogs. May 16, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved September 5, Archived from the original on January 3, Veerle’s blog.
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